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Вулкан Платинум

What Just a BIOS And What Can You Do?

In computer, BIOGRAPHY (/ ˈbaɪɒs, -oʊs/, BY-oss, -ohss; an acronym for Fundamental Input/Output System as well as additionally known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS or COMPUTER BIOS) is firmware made use of to execute equipment initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to offer runtime solutions for operating systems and also programs. The BIOGRAPHY firmware comes pre-installed on a computer’s system board, and it is the initial software to run when powered on. The name stems from the Standard Input/Output System used in the CP/M operating system in 1975. The BIOS originally exclusive to the IBM PC has been reverse crafted by some firms (such as Phoenix metro Technologies) looking to develop suitable systems. The interface of that initial system acts as a de facto criterion.

The BIOS in contemporary PCs initializes as well as tests the system equipment parts, as well as tons a boot loader from a mass memory gadget which then initializes an os. In the age of DOS, the BIOS supplied BIOS disrupt ask for the keyboard, display, and also other input/output (I/O) tools that standardized an interface to application programs as well as the os. Extra current os do not use the BIOGRAPHY disrupt calls after startup.

Many BIOS executions are especially created to work with a particular computer or motherboard version, by interfacing with various tools that make up the corresponding system chipset. Initially, BIOGRAPHY firmware was saved in a ROM chip on the COMPUTER motherboard. In contemporary computer systems, the BIOS components are kept on flash memory so it can be revised without eliminating the chip from the motherboard. This allows very easy, end-user updates to the BIOGRAPHY firmware so brand-new functions can be added or insects can be dealt with, however it additionally creates a possibility for the computer to become infected with BIOS rootkits. Furthermore, a BIOS upgrade that falls short might block the motherboard.

Unified Extensible Firmware User Interface (UEFI) is a follower to the heritage PC BIOS, intending to resolve its technological restrictions.

Background

The term BIOGRAPHY (Basic Input/Output System) was developed by Gary Kildall and also first appeared in the CP/M os in 1975, describing the machine-specific part of CP/M packed during boot time that interfaces straight with the equipment. (A CP/M machine typically has just an easy boot loader in its ROM.).

Variations of MS-DOS, COMPUTER DOS or DR-DOS have a documents called variously “IO.SYS”, “IBMBIO.COM”, “IBMBIO.SYS”, or “DRBIOS.SYS”; this data is known as the “DOS BIOS” (additionally known as the “DOS I/O System”) and also contains the lower-level hardware-specific part of the os. Along with the underlying hardware-specific yet running system-independent “System BIOS”, which resides in ROM, it represents the analogue to the “CP/M BIOS”.

The BIOS originally proprietary to the IBM PC has actually been reverse engineered by some firms (such as Phoenix metro Technologies) looking to develop compatible systems.

With the intro of PS/2 machines, IBM split the System ps1 bios into genuine- as well as protected-mode parts. The real-mode portion was suggested to provide backward compatibility with existing os such as DOS, as well as a result was named “CBIOS” (for “Compatibility BIOS”), whereas the “ABIOS” (for “Advanced BIOS”) supplied new user interfaces particularly fit for multitasking operating systems such as OS/2.

User interface

The BIOGRAPHY of the initial IBM PC as well as XT had no interactive interface. Error codes or messages were displayed on the screen, or coded series of noises were generated to signify mistakes when the power-on self-test (ARTICLE) had actually not proceeded to the point of efficiently initializing a video display adapter. Options on the IBM PC and XT were set by switches as well as jumpers on the main board and on development cards. Beginning around the mid-1990s, it ended up being normal for the BIOS ROM to consist of a “BIOS setup utility” (BCU [12] or “BIOS arrangement utility”, accessed at system power-up by a particular vital sequence. This program enabled the user to establish system setup choices, of the type previously established utilizing DIP switches, via an interactive food selection system controlled with the key-board. During duration, IBM-compatible Computers– including the IBM AT– held arrangement settings in battery-backed RAM as well as utilized a bootable configuration program on disk, not in the ROM, to set the setup alternatives included in this memory. The disk was supplied with the computer system, and if it was lost the system settings might not be altered. The same used as a whole to computers with an EISA bus, for which the arrangement program was called an EISA Arrangement Energy (ECU).

A contemporary Wintel-compatible computer gives a setup routine essentially the same in nature from the ROM-resident BIOGRAPHY configuration utilities of the late 1990s; the individual can configure hardware alternatives making use of the key-board and video display. Also, when mistakes take place at boot time, a modern BIOS normally displays straightforward error messages, often provided as pop-up boxes in a TUI design, and uses to enter the BIOGRAPHY arrangement utility or to neglect the mistake and also continue ideally. As opposed to battery-backed RAM, the modern-day Wintel maker might keep the BIOGRAPHY configuration setups in flash ROM, perhaps the same flash ROM that holds the BIOGRAPHY itself.

Operation

System start-up

Early Intel processors started at physical address 000FFFF0h. Systems with later cpus give logic to start running the BIOS from the system ROM.
If the system has just been powered up or the reset switch was pushed (” cold boot”), the full power-on self-test (POST) is run. If Ctrl+ Alt+ Remove was pushed (” warm boot”), an unique flag value kept in nonvolatile BIOS memory (” CMOS”) checked by the BIOGRAPHY enables bypass of the extensive MESSAGE and also memory discovery.

The POST recognizes, and also boots up system devices such as the CPU, RAM, interrupt controllers, DMA controllers, chipset, video display card, keyboard, disk drive, optical disk drive and also various other hardware.

Early IBM PCs had a regular in the BLOG POST that would certainly download and install a program into RAM through the keyboard port and run it. This attribute was intended for factory test or analysis functions.

Boot procedure

After the option ROM check is completed and all detected ROM modules with valid checksums have been called, or immediately after BLOG POST in a BIOGRAPHY version that does not check for choice ROMs, the BIOS calls INT 19h to start boot handling. Post-boot, programs packed can also call INT 19h to reboot the system, however they need to take care to disable disrupts and various other asynchronous equipment procedures that might disrupt the BIOS restarting procedure, or else the system may hang or crash while it is rebooting.

When INT 19h is called, the BIOGRAPHY tries to find boot loader software program on a “boot device”, such as a hard drive, a floppy, CD, or DVD. It lots and performs the very first boot software it discovers, providing it control of the COMPUTER.

The BIOS uses the boot tools embeded in EEPROM, CMOS RAM or, in the earliest Computers, DIP switches. The BIOGRAPHY checks each gadget in order to see if it is bootable by attempting to pack the very first field (boot market). If the industry can not read, the BIOS proceeds to the next tool. If the industry is read successfully, some BIOSes will certainly likewise check for the boot industry trademark 0x55 0xAA in the last two bytes of the sector (which is 512 bytes long), prior to approving a boot market as well as taking into consideration the device bootable.

When a bootable tool is found, the BIOS transfers regulate to the loaded sector. The BIOS does not analyze the materials of the boot sector besides to potentially look for the boot field signature in the last 2 bytes. Interpretation of information structures like dividing tables and BIOS Specification Blocks is done by the boot program in the boot market itself or by various other programs packed through the boot process.

A non-disk device such as a network adapter tries starting by a treatment that is specified by its option ROM or the equal integrated into the motherboard BIOGRAPHY ROM. Therefore, option ROMs may additionally influence or replace the boot procedure specified by the motherboard BIOGRAPHY ROM.

Boot top priority

The user can select the boot concern carried out by the BIOGRAPHIES. As an example, most computers have a hard disk that is bootable, however normally there is a removable-media drive that has higher boot concern, so the customer can trigger a removable disk to be started.

In the majority of modern-day BIOSes, the boot top priority order can be set up by the user. In older BIOSes, limited boot concern alternatives are selectable; in the earliest BIOSes, a repaired priority plan was carried out, with floppy disk drives initially, dealt with disks (i.e. hard drives) 2nd, and usually no other boot devices sustained, subject to alteration of these rules by mounted option ROMs. The BIOS in an early PC likewise usually would only boot from the first floppy disk drive or the first disk drive, even if there were two drives installed.

With the El Torito optical media boot standard, the optical drive in fact mimics a 3.5″ high-density floppy disk to the BIOGRAPHY for boot objectives. Reviewing the “first industry” of a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM is not a merely specified procedure like it gets on a floppy disk or a hard drive. Moreover, the complexity of the tool makes it difficult to create a beneficial boot program in one market. The bootable digital floppy can contain software that offers access to the optical medium in its indigenous format.

Extensions (alternative ROMs)

Outer cards such as some hard disk drive controllers and also some video display adapters have their very own BIOS extension alternative ROMs, which supply additional capability to BIOGRAPHY. Code in these extensions runs before the BIOS boots the system from mass storage space. These ROMs generally examination and also boot up equipment, add brand-new BIOS services, and also augment or change existing BIOGRAPHIES services with their own variations of those solutions. As an example, a SCSI controller normally has a BIOGRAPHY extension ROM that adds support for hard disk drives connected through that controller. Some video cards have expansion ROMs that change the video clip solutions of the motherboard BIOS with their own video clip solutions. BIOS extension ROMs acquire complete control of the device, so they can actually do anything, and also they might never return control to the BIOS that invoked them. An extension ROM could in principle contain a whole operating system or an application program, or it can execute a totally various boot procedure such as booting from a network. Operation of an IBM-compatible computer system can be entirely changed by removing or placing an adapter card (or a ROM chip) that contains a BIOS extension ROM.

The motherboard BIOS usually contains code to access hardware elements necessary for bootstrapping the system, such as the key-board, display screen, and also storage. Additionally, plug-in adapter cards such as SCSI, RAID, network user interface cards, as well as video clip boards commonly include their very own BIOGRAPHY (e.g. Video BIOS), complementing or changing the system BIOS code for the provided component. Also tools developed right into the motherboard can behave this way; their option ROMs can be stored as different code on the main BIOS blink chip, and upgraded either in tandem with, or independently from, the major BIOS.

An add-in card requires an option ROM if the card is not supported by the main BIOGRAPHIES and the card needs to be initialized or made obtainable with BIOS solutions prior to the os can be loaded (generally this suggests it is required in the bootstrapping process). Even when it is not called for, an alternative ROM can enable an adapter card to be utilized without filling driver software from a storage device after starting begins– with an option ROM, no time is required to load the vehicle driver, the vehicle driver does not use up room in RAM neither on hard drive, as well as the driver software program on the ROM always remains with the device so the two can not be mistakenly separated. Likewise, if the ROM gets on the card, both the peripheral hardware as well as the vehicle driver software supplied by the ROM are installed along with no additional effort to mount the software. An added benefit of ROM on some early PC systems (notably including the IBM PCjr) was that ROM was faster than primary system RAM. (On modern-day systems, the case is significantly the reverse of this, and BIOS ROM code is generally copied (” trailed”) right into RAM so it will certainly run quicker.).

There are numerous methods as well as utilities for checking out the components of various motherboard BIOGRAPHIES as well as growth ROMs, such as Microsoft DEBUG or the Unix dd.